There are a lot of extra ores added by mods.
You can hit R on them in your inventory or in this page to see where they generate.

Thermal Foundation

Thermal Foundation adds these ores:
![Copper Ore](item:thermalfoundation:ore 1 0)
![Tin Ore](item:thermalfoundation:ore 1 1)
![Silver Ore](item:thermalfoundation:ore 1 2)
![Lead Ore](item:thermalfoundation:ore 1 3)
![Aluminum Ore](item:thermalfoundation:ore 1 4)
![Nickel Ore](item:thermalfoundation:ore 1 5)

It also adds these ores, which temporarily spawn a bit of their fluid when they are broken.
![Oil Sand](item:thermalfoundation:ore_fluid 1 0)
![Oil Shale](item:thermalfoundation:ore_fluid 1 1)
Oil Sand and Oil Shale will drop Bitumen and a splash of Crude Oil.
![Destabilized Redstone Ore](item:thermalfoundation:ore_fluid 1 2)
Destabilized Redstone Ore will drop Destabilized Clathrate and a splash of Destabilized Redstone.
![Energized Netherrack](item:thermalfoundation:ore_fluid 1 3)
Energized Netherrack will drop Energized Clathrate and a splash of Energized Glowstone (which flows upwards and gives you Jump Boost, Speed, and Glowing).
![Resonant End Stone](item:thermalfoundation:ore_fluid 1 4)
Resonant End Stone drops Resonant Clathrate and a splash of Resonant Ender (which teleports you randomly within 8 blocks).

Tinkers' Construct

Tinkers' Construct adds these ores to the Nether.
![Cobalt Ore](item:tconstruct:ore 1 0)
![Ardite Ore](item:tconstruct:ore 1 1)

Astral Sorcery

Astral Sorcery adds Aquamarine Shale, which can spawn underwater in beaches.
![Aquamarine Shale](item:astralsorcery:blockcustomsandore)

Actually Additon

Actually Addition adds Black Quartz Ore
![Black Quartz Ore](item:actuallyadditions:block_misc 1 3)